In KS1 and KS2, the teaching of writing follows a clear teaching sequence and includes the following elements. PAT is used to help pupils discuss Purpose, Audience and Text Type at the start of each English unit. Each unit typically lasts three weeks. Children are excited to write for the given audience and enjoy putting this into practice at the end of the unit, i.e. reading their independently-written stories to the Pre-School children, recording their play-scripts onto an audio tape or showcasing their non-fiction writing in an exhibition to the local community. In the Foundation Stage, a number of the elements outlined below are included within the Communication and Language (CL) and Literacy (L) provision.
The writing sequence is planned across three phases, typically lasting one week each:
Phase 1 - Read like a Reader
Involves being immersed in high-quality examples of the given text type/genre. Children get a strong understanding of the key features of the text type and understand 'What a good one looks like'. Children get to hear quality texts being read to them and get to practice their reading fluency during this phase. Children become aware of what they will need to include when they become the writers/authors.
Phase 2 – Read like a Writer
Involves thinking about how a text is written and considering the choices that the writer makes. Children undertake lots of opportunities for 'short-burst' writing during this phase, focusing on the sentence structure, grammar and punctuation relevant to the text type. Children use drama, hot-seating, freeze-frames etc to inspire their writing. Children benefit from adult-led, shared and guided writing during this phase.
Phase 3 – Write like a Reader
Involves building up to writing the given text type independently, writing for an extended length of time. Children will have the skills and knowledge from the earlier phases to include within their writing. Children develop their writing across the sessions this week, leading them to share their finished piece with their intended audience.
This is used across the school to model the writing process. Teachers model a diverse range of skills during these sessions, including word choice, sentence construction, punctuation and effect on the reader. Pupils are encouraged to contribute during these sessions through supported composition, sharing their ideas with the teacher orally or using whiteboards. During these sessions, links to reading are made explicit with the teacher modelling how to draw on the ideas and language from texts read.
Guided writing is used to address next steps for specific groups of pupils within the context of the current unit of work. These next steps may relate to both the composition and transcription elements of writing. In Foundation Stage, these sessions are incorporated into adult-directed learning.
In KS1 and KS2, the teaching sequence for writing allows pupils to write at length, over a number of sessions, to create an independent piece of writing. Opportunities for cross-curricular writing are provided across the curriculum. In Foundation Stage, there are a wealth of opportunities for children to develop their independent mark making. Writing opportunities are provided across all areas of learning and take place within both child-initiated and adult-directed contexts.